Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Eukaryotics Cells Essay Example

Eukaryotics Cells Essay Example Eukaryotics Cells Essay Eukaryotics Cells Essay Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The most characteristic membrane bound structure is the nucleus. This feature gives them their name, (also spelled eucaryote,) which comes from the Greek word referring to the nucleus. Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. Microorganisms and all other living organisms are classified as prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are distinguished on the basis of their cellular characteristics. For example, rokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and other memorane-bound structures known as organelles, while eukaryotic cells have both a nucleus and organelles (Figure ). The important cellular features of (a) a prokaryotic cell (a bacterium) and (b) a eukaryotic cell. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are similar in several ways. Both types of cells are enclosed by cell membranes (plasma membranes), and both use DNA for their genetic information. Prokaryotes include several kinds of microorganisms, such as bacteria and cyanobacteria. Eukaryotes include such microorganisms as fungi, protozoa, and simple algae. Viruses are considered neither prokaryotes nor eukaryotes because they lack the characteristics of living things, except the ability to replicate (which they accomplish only in living cells). Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They also contain a variety of cellular bodies called organelles. The organelles function in the activities of the cell and are compartments for localizing metabolic function. Microscopic protozoa, unicellular algae, and fungi have eukaryotic cells. Basic structure The basic eukaryotic cell contains the following: . lasma membrane 2. glycocalyx (components external to the plasma membrane) 3. cytoplasm (semifluid) 4. cytoskeleton microfilaments and microtubules that suspend organelles, give shape, and allow motion 5. presence of characteristic membrane enclosed subcellular organelles Characteristic biomembranes and organelles Plasma Membrane A lipid/protein/carbohydrate complex, providing a barrier and containing tran sport and signaling systems. Nucleus Double membrane surrounding the chromosomes and the nucleolus. Pores allow specific communication with the cytoplasm. The nucleolus is a site for synthesis of RNA making up the ribosome. Mitochondria Surrounded by a double membrane with a series of folds called cristae. Functions in energy production through metabolism. Contains its own DNA, and is believed to have originated as a captured bacterium. Chloroplasts (plastids) Surrounded by a double membrane, containing stacked thylakoid membranes. Responsible for photosynthesis, the trapping of light energy for the synthesis of sugars. Contains DNA, and like mitochondria is believed to have originated as a captured bacterium. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) A network of interconnected membranes forming channels within the cell. Covered with ribosomes (causing the rough appearance) which are in the process of synthesizing proteins for secretion or localization in membranes. Ribosomes Protein and RNA complex responsible for protein synthesis. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) A network of interconnected membranes forming channels within the cell. A site for synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Also contains enzymes for detoxifying chemicals including drugs and pesticides. Golgi apparatus A series of stacked membranes. Vesicles (small membrane surrounded bags) carry materials from the RER to the Golgi apparatus. Vesicles move between the stacks while the proteins are processed to a mature form. Vesicles then carry newly formed membrane and secreted proteins to their final destinations including secretion or membrane localization. Lysosymes A membrane bound organelle that is responsible for degrading proteins and membranes in the cell, and also helps degrade materials ingested by the cell. Vacuoles Membrane surrounded bags that contain water and storage materials in plants. Peroxisomes or Microbodies Produce and degrade hydrogen peroxide, a toxic compound that can be produced during metabolism. Cell wall Plants have a rigid cell wall in addition to their cell membranes. Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells The difference between the structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is so great that it is considered to be the most important distinction among groups of organisms. The most fundamental difference is that eukaryotes do have true nuclei containing their DNA, whereas the genetic material in prokaryotes is not membrane-bound. In eukaryotes, the mitochondria and chloroplasts perform various metabolic processes and are believed to have been derived from endosymbiotic bacteria. In prokaryotes similar processes occur across the cell membrane; endosymbionts are extremely rare. The cell walls of prokaryotes are generally formed of a different molecule (peptidoglycan) to those of eukaryotes (many eukaryotes do not have a cell wall at all). Prokaryotes are usually much smaller than eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotes also differ from eukaryotes in that they contain only a single loop of stable chromosomal DNA tored in an area named the nucleoid, while eukaryote DNA is found on tightly bound and organised chromosomes. Although some eukaryotes have satellite DNA structures called plasmids, these are generally regarded as a prokaryote feature and many important genes in prokaryotes are stored on plasmids. Prokaryotes have a larger surface area to volume ratio giving them a higher metabolic rate, a higher growth rate and consequently a shorter generation time compared to Eukaryotes. Genes Prokaryotes also differ from eukaryotes in the structure, packing, density, and rrangement of their genes on the chromosome. Prokaryotes have incredibly compact genomes compared to eukaryotes, mostly because prokaryote genes lack introns and large non-coding regions between each gene. Whereas nearly 95% of the human genome does not code for proteins or RNA or includes a gene promoter, nearly all of the prokaryote genome codes or controls something. Prokaryote genes are also expressed in groups, known as operons, instead of individually, as in eukaryotes. In a prokaryote cell, all genes in an operon(three in the case of the amous lac operon) are transcribed on the same piece of RNA and then made into separate proteins, whereas if these genes were native to eukaryotes, they each would have their own promoter and be transcribed on their own strand of mRNA. This lesser degree of control over gene expression contributes to the simplicity of the prokaryotes as compared to the eukaryotes. The common features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are: 1 . DNA, the genetic material contained in one or more chromosomes and located in a nonmembrane bound nucleoid region in prokaryotes and a membrane-bound ucleus in eukaryotes 2. Plasma membrane, a phospholipid bilayer with proteins that separates the cell from the surrounding environment and functions as a selective barrier for the import and export of materials 3. Cytoplasm, the rest of the material of the cell within the plasma membrane, excluding the nucleoid region or nucleus, that consists of a fluid portion called the cytosol and the organelles and other particulates suspended in it 4. Ribosomes, the organelles on which protein synthesis takes place Comparison chart Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell Present Absent Number of chromosomes More than one Onebut not true chromosome: Plasmids cell Type Usually multicellular Usually unicellular (some cyanobacteria may be multicellular) True Membrane bound Example Animals and Plants Bacteria and Archaea Genetic Recombination Meiosis and fusion of gametes Partial, undirectional transfers DNA Lysosomes and peroxisomes Microtubules Absent or rare Endoplasmic reticulum Cytoskeleton May be absent DNA wrapping on proteins. Eukaryotes wrap their DNA around proteins called histones. Multiple proteins act together to fold and condense prokaryotic DNA. Folded DNA is hen organized into a variety of conformations that are supercoiled and wound around tetramers of the HU protein. Ribosomes larger smaller Vesicles Chloroplasts Present (in plants) Absent; chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasm Flagella Microscopic in size; membrane bound; usually arranged as nine doublets surrounding two singlets Submicroscopic in size, composed of only one fiber Permeability of Nuclear Membrane Selective not present Plasma membrane with steroid Yes Usually no Only in plant cells and fungi (chemically simpler) Usually chemically complexed Cell size 10-100urn 1-1 Oum

Monday, March 2, 2020

ESL Job Interview Lesson and Worksheet

ESL Job Interview Lesson and Worksheet Students in ESL classes (and some EFL classes) will eventually need to take job interviews as they go about finding new employment. The art of job interviewing can be a touchy subject for many students and the approach can vary widely from country to country. Some countries may expect a more aggressive, self-promoting style, while others may generally prefer a more modest approach. In any case, job interviews can make even the best students nervous. One of the best ways to deal with this is to explain job interviewing as an extremely important game. Make it clear that students should understand the rules of the game. Whether or not they feel any given job interviewing style is fair is an entirely different issue. By making immediately clear that youre not trying to teach the correct way to interview, but only trying to help them understand the rules of the game and what they should expect from it, youll help students focus on the task at hand, rather than getting caught up in cultural comparisons. Aim: Improve job interviewing skills Activity: Simulated job interviews Level:  Intermediate to advanced Teaching Outline Distribute the worksheet (from this lesson) to students in the class. Students should follow each of the instructions carefully.Make groups of three people and choose one person to interview for the positions, one to interview the job applicant, and one to take notes on the job interview.Review notes after each interview and have the interviewers tell the interviewees how they think they could improve their job interviewing skills.Have students switch roles and either interview another person or take notes. Make sure that all students have taken notes AND interviewed so that they can better understand the job interviewing process.While students are in their groups, have them note disagreements on a good job interviewing technique. At the end of the session, have students to ask other students their opinions on these disagreements.As a follow-up activity, have students go online and find a few jobs they would like to do. Have them write down their qualifications as practice in class. Job Interviewing Worksheet Visit a popular employment website to search for positions. Put in a few keywords for jobs that you would like. Alternately, find a newspaper with employment ads. If you dont have access to job listings, think of some jobs that you might find interesting. The positions you choose should be related to employment you have done in the past, or the jobs you would like to do in the future as they relate to your studies.  The positions dont necessarily need to be identical to your past jobs, nor do they need to exactly match the subject you are studying at school. Choose two jobs from the list of positions you have found. Make sure to choose jobs that match your skills in some way. To prepare yourself with appropriate vocabulary, you should explore vocabulary resources that list specific vocabulary for the work sector for which you are applying. Several resources can help with this: Use the Occupational Outlook Handbook, which lists positions by industry. This is a rich resource that provides general descriptions of the type of work and responsibilities you can expect.Search the industry glossary, for example, banking glossary. This will lead you to pages that provide definitions for key language in your chosen industry.Use a collocation dictionary with keywords from your industry. This will help you learn key phrases and words that usually go together. On a separate piece of paper, write down your qualifications for the job. Think about the skills you have and how they relate to the job you would like. These skills and qualifications can later be used on your resume. Here are some of the questions you should ask yourself when thinking about your qualifications: What tasks have I done at past jobs that are similar to the tasks required in this job advertisement?What are my strengths and weaknesses and how do they relate to the tasks required in this job advertisement?How do I relate to people? Do I have good people skills?If I dont have any related work experience, how does the experience I have and/or studies Ive done relate?Why do I want this job? With classmates, take turns interviewing each other. You can help fellow students by writing down a few questions that you feel will be asked. However, make sure that your partners also include general questions such as Whats your greatest strength?

Friday, February 14, 2020

Universal Pocket Prescription Card, Behavioral Economics Paper Essay

Universal Pocket Prescription Card, Behavioral Economics Paper - Essay Example Policy-makers and public or nonprofit administrators need to address the problem of failure to use the universal pocket prescription card by medical care consumers. The study also provides an insight into the economic benefits if using the universal pocket prescription card. The card acts as a remedy to various problems associated with escalating costs of medical care. Policymakers should implement the utilization of comprehensive Pocket Prescription Card because it can be in case there have been changes in the economic, medical cost. Policymakers should implement policies that support the utilization of Universal Pocket Prescription Card (Janssen et al., 2014). Universal pocket prescription cards are cards that are designed to fit a pocket of even a wallet of the user. They provide an easy and very effective strategy in the recording of personal information. The information may include names and dosages of prescribed drugs. The drugs may be over the counter, herbal, vitamins, and even supplements. The card also stores other details such as how the medicine should be and at what time it should be made. Universal medical cards are used to give caregivers more information. They help to minimize the economic problems that might be in the giving of health care (Boyer, 2009). There has been a projection by economists that there will increase in the medical cost. A rate of 7 percent is expected, calling on employees to try and control expenses by changing policies that shift costs to the workers. Because of the costs that might be behavioral economic predicts that people are most likely to adopt the use of universal pocket cards. It is because this reduces the chances for inappropriate prescription and increase opportunities for proper diagnosis. In the United States, it has been shown that non-compliance with medical

Sunday, February 2, 2020

WHAt is a documentary film Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

WHAt is a documentary film - Essay Example Grierson essentially defined a documentary as â€Å"Creative treatment of actuality.† This paper describes aspects that can be used to distinguish a documentary film. One major factor distinguishing documentary films is their actuality and the fact that they are not scripted. However, some documentaries may be acted ones, used to depict or make the audience visualize and understand how an event may have happened. Documentary film is prepared with a purpose relevant to the audience and is intended to make a difference on their understanding about the subject matter (Nichols, 1992, p. 5-6; Nichols, 2001, p. 1-5). A documentary could be based on a variety of themes, which in clued, morality, politics, aesthetic, or other subjects but must be informative and realistic. Modern day documentaries tend to overlap with other types of films due to invention of reality television where the documentaries appear to have some sense of fictional content (Renov, 2004, p.5-10; Winston, 1995, p. 8-11) A documentary is a type of a film that attempts to document happenings and tries to make them not lose their realism. A number of feature are used in discern a documentary from other films and include the role , the narrative strategy, the actuality of the film, neutrality, the subject matter, and the factual way in which the ideas are

Friday, January 24, 2020

Katherine Sheppard Essays -- Katherine Sheppard

"A great woman has gone whose name will remain an inspiration to the daughters of New Zealand, while our history endures". This quote was read at the funeral for Katherine Sheppard. The political advancement of women in New Zealand was brought about by a handful of courageous women, particularly Kate Sheppard. Kate Sheppard was born on March 10, 1847 in Liverpool, England. Her full name was Katherine Wilson Sheppard, but she preferred the name Kate. After her father's death in 1862 when Kate was only 15, Kate's mother, took her and her two older brothers over to New Zealand, in 1868 and settled in Christchurch. Then in 1871, Sheppard got married to a merchant named Walter Allen Sheppard. Together they had one son, named Douglas who was born in 1880. She was an active member in her church and was very religious. Later in her life she became a big leader in the fight for Women's rights. Three heroic traits that a hero should possess are being a leader, strong, and devoted. Leadership s kill because lacking this skill will keep people from knowing what is expected for them to accomplish. Strong will power would allow the hero to get things done. And lastly the hero needs to be devoted to their cause, while having the mindset of not giving up until something is accomplished. Katherine Sheppard portrays great leadership, a strong will for what's right, and a devoted mindset; all of which signifies that she deserves the title of a hero. Telling people to accomplish something without a purpose is one thing, but being able to lead a vast amount of people with a purpose to succeed their goal is a whole other story. Katherine Sheppard has proven that with great leadership skills, she was able to band together many organizations and peo... ...and. Kate should always remembered not only for her work to bring change to New Zealand women by gaining the right to vote, but for her pride of being a woman, at a time where being a woman was seen as a weakness, which is inspiring to me. Work Cited "Kate Sheppard, 1847-1934." Kate Sheppard 1847-1931. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. "Lightner, Barb. "Kate Sheppard." Kate Sheppard (2009): 1. Biography Reference Center. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. "Sheppard, Katherine Wilson." - Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2012. Sheppard, Kate." Britannica Biographies (2012): 1. Biography Reference Center. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. Sheppard, Kate (1847-1934)." Dictionary of Women Worldwide: 25,000 Women Through the Ages. Ed. Anne Commire and Deborah Klezmer. Vol. 2. Detroit: Yorkin Publications, 2007. 1713. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Dec. 2012

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Bowling Alone

This essay deals with the correlation between a healthy, progressive society and one that is engaged civilly with sociological matters and ties. The statistics expressed in Putnam's essay show a rather rapid decline in our societies' civil engagement in the last quarter century. Putnam emphasizes the valiant importance of a strong and active society for growth and development in a democracy. Without further social development Americans could deteriorate their once strong, socially engaged society down to a individualistic democracy that would shatter our national image.Putnam's essay is titled, â€Å"Bowling Alone†, he gives emphasis, and depth to this title in several different ways throughout his article. Perhaps, the most interesting and whimsical piece of information that he shares though is a bowling statistic. More contemporary Americans are bowling than ever before in history, although, bowling in organized leagues has plummeted in the last decade. Between 1980 and 1993 the total number of bowlers in America increased by 10 percent, while league bowling decreased by 40 percent.This statistic, that shows the rise of solo bowling threatens the very, livelihood of bowling business proprietors because many of those people who bowl as members of leagues consume three times as much beer and pizza. Common knowledge then comes into play, the profit money in bowling does not derive from the balls and shoes but rather the other expenditures such as, beer and pizza. The broader social significance, in this matter though, however lies in the social communication and conversations that can derive from beer and pizza, as compared to solo bowlers.Putnam offers other information that supports his claim, besides bowling statistics. In some parts of the essay, he shares that organizational groups, as a whole have experienced a massive decline in new membership, over the last quarter century. Church-related groups are the most common type of organization joined by A mericans, women especially. Other examples of popular organizations frequently joined by Americans are, school service groups, sports groups, professional societies, literary groups, labor unions, fraternal groups, and veterans' groups. All of these organizational groups share one common trait, a decline in new membership.There are consequences that ensue after a society begins, to lose it civilly engaged citizens, for private, less trusting ones. In a survey done, over 35 countries, it shows that social trust and civic engagement are strongly correlated. The greater the amount of associational membership in a society, the more trusting its citizens, are likely to be. Trust and engagement are two components of the same underlying factor, social capital. America is still ranked relatively high by cross-national standards in both areas of social capital; and its citizens are more trusting and more engaged than people in most other parts of the world, still.What, these trends show in t he past quarter- century, however, have placed United States significantly lower in the international rankings of social capital. An alarming possibility that this information provides is in another quarter-century at this rate of change, America could be roughly equivalent to South Korea, Belgium, or Estonia today. Two generations' decline at the same rate would leave the United States at the level of today's Chile, Portugal, and Slovenia. Putnam does not offer any concrete solutions to these current trends, but he shares his advice and wisdom on such a complex problem.Giving more responsibility to the institutions that raise our children could be the answer. Perhaps finding new ways to reach younger generations at a more significant point in childhood could curve this trend. For example, instituting more programs and organizations rather than the typical sports or academic activities, offered. Reshaping the classroom and offering more social progressive classes could play a signif icant role in instilling a strong social reinforcing importance to a young person. Another possibility for a helpful change in this current trend could be given in a representative media source, for the people, by the people.There is no doubt that our current media today seems to be a giant circus that focuses only on irrelevant issues and seeks only high ratings. Perhaps, a media source that actually is not focused on getting ratings or pushing certain agendas on Americans could be the answer. Most news sources today seem to disinterest many Americans with blown up stories, and each stations political ideologies. Creating a station with no bias, giving direct information to the people about real issues in this country could generate more interest in our country's politics.Television has the ability to reach more people than any other source in the world, why not use it to reach the social outcry in America? and be a solution rather than the problem. In conclusion, Putnam's essay of fers a non-bias factual account of a growing problem that future generations may face. There is no clear solution to this debate, what is clear though, however, is the significance of this issue. To solve this, it will take many solutions and variables. Counter trends have shown what lies ahead, new social groups must take the supremacy and give it power.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Reaction Paper - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1318 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/09/12 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Elizabeth Cooper MGT-106 Ball May 20, 2010 Self-Assessment Reaction Paper Summary It is not easy to describe yourself and to be truly honest. The way you think of yourself and how another person might think of you could be completely different. This class has helped me to understand myself better and accurately describe me. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Reaction Paper" essay for you Create order If I had to describe myself, I would say that I am very laid back and easy going. I do not let small things bother me. I feel you should â€Å"pick your battles† sort of speak. I think I take after my mom. Growing up I never saw her really angry at anyone. She always gets a long with everyone and I think she rubbed off on me. I am also friendly and caring. I am always concerned with how people feel and how I can help others. I enjoy talking and being around all different types of people. Another word I would use to describe myself is hard-working. I always put 100% in everything I do. I like having a sense of accomplishment. I value friends, family, loyalty, and honesty and surround myself with people who also value these things. I do have a few concerns with myself however. Although I consider being able to trust people to be a good trait, being to trustworthy may be a bad thing. I feel that I can be to trustworthy at times. I trust everyone until he or she gives me a reason not to trust them. I feel that it is important to know if people are honest and trustworthy and I give everyone the benefit of the doubt. I have had a few problems in my past with trusting people before I really know them. For example, I was at a party one of friends was having and met this lady. My friend knew her and figured she was an alright person. A few days later I ran in to her and she asked to borrow a few dollars from me. She gave me a sad story and told me that she would be sure to pay me back the following week. The following week came and I did not hear from her. A few weeks later I ran into her and she never offered or mentioned the money she borrowed from me. I think this is a good example of being too trustworthy. Specific Strengths and Weaknesses The self-assessment exercises I did for this class really opened my eyes to what kind of person I am. I have learned a lot about myself that I was unaware of. 1)The results of The Locus of Control self-assessment exercise in chapter 2 really shocked me. I scored a twenty on the assessment, which meant that I believe that I am in control of my own destiny. Also, that I think very little is controlled by fate, chance, and other people. This shocked me because I thought I would have scored more in the middle because I do believe in fate and chance. I think that things happen f or a reason but it is up to us to do something about it. (2)The Big Five Personality exercise from chapter 2 also opened my eyes. My weakest dimension was surgency. According to these results, I am a follower and do not like to compete or influence. I on the other hand would not consider myself to be a follower. Although I do not like to lead, I do what I want to do. My strongest dimension was aggreeableness, which includes traits related to getting along with people. (3)In chapter 13 the self-assessment exercise was Your Decision Making Style. I scored a twenty on the exercise and the results showed that I have a consistent style. When I make a decision I always think about the decision and consider all alternatives before I make a decision. 4)The Networking Skill Self-Assessment exercise in chapter 11 really helped me learn just how important knowing people can help me in starting and bettering my career. It also helped me learn ways to plan my career. (5)The Openness to Change exercise proved that I am open to change. I do not mind trying new things but will do what I like to do best. (6)Chapter 4’s exercise really was a learning exper ience for me. It talked about techniques that can help me in time management. Making a to-do list, stop being a perfectionist, and only do one task at a time are things I learned can help me with time management. 7)Chapter 5’s exercise was a real eye opener. According to the Listening Skills exercise I am in the middle of being a good listener and poor listener. I have always thought of myself as a good listener but this exercise said otherwise. After reading the chapter and going over the exercise I agreed with the results. There are a few thing that I can do to improve my listening skills. (8)The Stress Personality-Type confirmed that I do stress. The results showed that I have a Type A personality, which means that I could end up with some of the problems associated with stress and I do agree with these results. 9)The Learning Style exercise helped me to learn why and how I learn the way I do. I scored a 16 in observing, 9 in doing, 8 in feeling, and 17 in thinking. The re sults concluded that my preferred dimension of learning is an assimilator, which combines observing and thinking. The book says that assimilators are skilled at creating models and theories and developing plans. They are skilled at understanding a wide range of information and putting it into concise, logical form. (10)The exercise in chapter 7 ( Use of the Assertiveness Style) concluded that my preferred style is assertive. People who use this behavior tend to have a positive self-concept. They are not threatened by others and do not let others control their behavior. All of these exercises helped me learn how to work with others better. They showed me ways to improve how I act and control myself around others. The Listening Skills exercise in chapter 5 will really impact how I work with others. I now know that I am not as good of a listener as I thought I was. Now that I know this, I can improve on how well I listen to others. Recommendations After completing all the exercises, I have learned that I need to do things a little differently. I definitely need to listen better and I plan too. Also I plan not to think about certain decisions too long. Although I have a consistent style, I know that sometimes I can over think things and in return make the wrong decision. I think I have good human relation skills already. So I plan to keep doing what I already do but change a few things. For example, I plan to start being a leader. I am going to step up and take control of situations I am in. Also, I plan to speak-up a little more and let people know exactly what I am feeling. Self-Reflection I have learned that life is full of surprises. How you think of yourself and how others think of you are most of the time going to be different until you are honest with yourself. I hope that when I graduate I am able to live a productive life-style. I hope to enjoy my job, family, friends, and life. Four years from now, I want to have a career as an RN and be settled in a home that I will live in for the rest of my life with my family. This class has helped me a lot. It taught me ways to improve myself. Also helped me learn ways to help me with time management. Which is going to be a big help, considering I have 2 children and a husband and plan to have a successful career.