Monday, August 24, 2020

Wordsworth Reveals a Personal Affinity free essay sample

All through Wordsworth sonnets, â€Å"my heart jumps for satisfaction and† I meandered as desolate as a cloud† he shows an exceptionally profound, otherworldly and enthusiastic association with nature. The sonnets are centered around the characteristic magnificence of the ‘rainbow’ and ‘daffodils’. In the two sonnets he uncovers an individual proclivity with nature. This is apparent through the transaction of beautiful methods all through the two sonnets. Living the vast majority of his life in country England, Wordsworth was especially against the Industrialisation and the French Revolution. These two occasions significantly affected his verse due to its destructive impact on the individual, the network and the scene. He strived to deify the lost country scene in his verse and does this through his two sonnets â€Å"my heart jumps up† and â€Å"I meandered as forlorn as a cloud†. ‘I meandered as desolate as a cloud’ mirrors the acquire associations among man and nature. Wordsworth utilizes an assortment of allegorical language to impart this thought. We will compose a custom exposition test on Wordsworth Reveals a Personal Affinity or then again any comparative subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Overstatement, visual symbolism and embodiment are significant methods utilized as they demonstrate Wordsworth’s love for nature. In the primary line of the sonnet he utilizes exemplification in speaking to himself allegorically as a cloud. Wordsworth at that point continues to embody the daffodils as people, portraying the daffodils as ‘fluttering and moving in the breeze’ He additionally represents the daffodils as a ‘jocund company’, proposing the blossoms have emotions similarly as people do. Once more, there is the proposal of solidarity among man and nature when Wordsworth depicts that ‘a writer can't be gay, in such a jocund company’.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Third Estate Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Third Estate Paper - Essay Example The principal home contained strict pioneers and the church who were the littlest minority, however used a lot of forces and impact in the nation. The ministry is known to have taken ownership of one fifth of the land in France, and had extraordinary effect on the ruler. These were absolved from settling charges and were appointed various laborers in the houses of worship. The subsequent home was the decision class who had massive control and impact upon the third home and attempted to guarantee that the privileges of individuals from the third domain were encroached upon to maintain a strategic distance from any type of restriction. On account of the out of line treatment individuals from the third domain got from the first and second homes, there emerged revolutionists among them and through crafted by any semblance of Sieyes, they rebelled against the political framework, cutting the rank framework down, prompting the affirmation of human rights, and since the an equitable and rea sonable society. 2.0. Conversation. The occasions explained in this paper occurred before the French transformation in the years going before 1788. The political circumstance right now was ruled by the first and second classes, which were the Catholic Church and the ruler separately. The information winning as of now was that the ministry and respectability were appointed by God and that nobody reserved the option to scrutinize whatever they did as they were ‘holy’ and just liable to God. Honorable authority was guided by four qualities: that it was blessed, fatherly, supreme, and governed with an explanation. It was, at that point to be loved by everybody (Hibbert 283). This was the period going before the fall of the Roman Empire and the ascent of the Catholic Church. The congregation was powerful to such an extent that the papacy directed each part of human life including moral, good, strict, and political association of the general public. The congregation, in this manner, developed close by mainstream powers, with the two relying upon one another commonly for their reality. The people of this time were generally arranged into three gatherings: the individuals who battled (the respectability), the individuals who implored (the congregation), and the individuals who worked (the lower class). The best worry for the three gatherings was force and impact. The congregation and respectability achieved this by ingraining belief systems of dread among the third bequest that they were an exceptional select by God and that serving them added up to serving God. For a long tie, they figured out how to terrify the individuals of the lower class until the hour of the Investiture Controversy that saw the below average inquiry the forces and authority of the congregation. They ousted the congregation and had its spot in the principal domain. The second rate class, o the other hand, was caught up with searching for ways it could topple the respectability to sh ape their very own country where there would be fairness among all (Bienvenu 351). In the late sixteenth century, relations between the ruler and Estate Generals started to fall apart, prompting the age occasions where Estate Generals started to sever structure the fundamental realm power. These further prompted the beginning of the French Revolution portrayed by many long periods of common distress, particularly by individuals from the third bequest. The unrest was finished after the first and second homes consented to remember delegates from the third home for the overseeing body and changes

Saturday, July 18, 2020

The Best Cars of American Fiction

The Best Cars of American Fiction This is a guest post from  Andy Browers.  Andy believes in going to State Fairs, road trips, fist-pumping at wedding receptions to rock and roll, all you can eat sushi, and doing it all with a book in your hand. He writes blogs and essays from Minneapolis, MN. ____________________ Americans are troublemakers. Let me explain. I draw wisdom from The Music Man with extreme reluctanceâ€"just ask any of my friends who I’ve subjected to my abridged version of the entire musical, which takes only four seconds and one dance move resembling grotesque old-timey clogging. But sometimes you have to turn to The Music Man.   It has a lot to say on the topic of trouble. Playwright Meredith Wilson assures us “it’s the model T Ford made the trouble,” not unlike the kind that eventually found its way to River City, Iowa with a capital T that rhymes with P that stands for lots of things, including plays I hope to never see again. So, back to trouble. Who made the Model T Ford and all that followed in the first place? Americans. Americans did. We love trouble, which is to say we love cars. Like Mr. Toad of Toad Hallâ€"who also got into trouble because of them, am I right?â€"our American fanaticism for automobiles was instant and consuming. Cars filled our avenues, our conversations, our dreams for over a hundred and twenty-five years, so of course tons of writers have given them a place in their books. The showroom of the best cars found in those books could be huge and cluttered, so I’ve left out some that probably deserve to be included. I narrowed it down to domestic models only, so you won’t find any Chitty Chitty Bang Bangs or Aston Martins, I’m afraid. Sorry Brit Litâ€"maybe next time. Because it’s a neat number, tidy and balanced, I’ve picked out three of my favorites for us to spin around the block. So, in no particular order. Rocinante, from Travels With Charley by John Steinbeck. Excluding apple pie and professional wrestling, is there anything more American than the road trip? I think there isn’t, especially when John Steinbeck is behind the wheel. He took us along for his (certainly exaggerated, potentially fictionalized, nevertheless charming) ride across The United States in 1960. America was hitting its cultural puberty, and Steinbeck gave us a front row seat to watch as it started to get a little of its adult shape. We had to share that seat with Charley, his titular poodle, but having a dog on your lap only makes a trip better, don’t you think? While writing Travels With Charley, Steinbeck meets and mediates on the newly minted culture of the mobile home, which he sees as being perfectly matched for the restless American spirit. We can live on the road. On the road! And he does, too, in his tricked-out-for-its-time camper, which he named Rocinante after Don Quixote’s horse with the woeful countenance. Whenever he felt like it, he could eat, sleep, entertain, and drink right from the comfort (used loosely in this case, probably) of his vehicle. And drink he does. Before setting out, he hits up a liquor store for so much booze to take along that the clerk assumes he’s throwing a huge party. Maybe he was. Maybe it was a welcome home party. Maybe he felt the urge to live like a turtleâ€"the spirit animal of The Millennials, perhapsâ€"and to carry your home on your back because in the shifting sands of our culture and circumstances, you might never find another one. Americans move a lot now, changing careers often and following jobs as hunters follow herds. And like John Steinbeck as he penned this book on the tiny table deep inside Rocinante, we tend to find the idea of working from home really appealing.           It’s not much to look at, that camper truck. You can find out for yourself, of course, at the National Steinbeck Center in Salinas, California, where it sits on display. It may get overshadowed by literature’s flashier makes and models, but if you’re looking for substance over style, Rocinante is the car for you.           If your taste is in fact all about style, then I present to you the cherry red 1954 Ford Sunliner convertible from Stephen King’s 11/22/63. King isn’t shy about flexing the muscles of his nostalgia, and he really goes to town in this one, constant readers. Mid-century is in right now, and we get just a little gooey when we think about those nifty 50s. Jake Epping, the hero of the story, slips into the past through a rabbit hole in the back of a diner, where he winds up in 1958. And how long does it take for him to make the deal-sealing handshake with a car salesman? Two chapters. It takes two chapters. Once Jake/King gets his dream car, it’s not hard to imagine either of them sneaking out to the garage at midnight to gaze lovingly at their beautiful machine. The author veils his love for the car so thinly that you can basically hear the smile in his words whenever he writes about it. It shares some traits with King’s writing style itself: sometimes overlarge; built from common, All-American parts; dependable; and with its fins over the taillights and candy-colored paintjob, it’s got just enough flair to let you know it’s supposed to be fun. Oh, and you can also bet it’s filled with rock and roll.             The Sunliner doesn’t get to be the feature of the story like the terrifying, sentient vehicles of Christine and Maximum Overdrive or get the attention of the Buick 8, but it’s an iconic heart, pumping as much Bradburian wonder for what Stephen King calls the “Land of Ago” as it canâ€"which is a lot. Nothing lasts forever, and when the Sunliner has driven its last mile in the novel, the parting stings a little. As he buys a new set of wheels out of necessity, Jake confesses the Sunliner was the first car he ever really loved. First love? The subject of a great story? WHAT? You might have fond childhood memories of your family’s car. Mine are of a rockin’ 1980s station wagon complete with wood panels and a supercool I (HEART) 4-H bumper sticker. It came to represent everything we were: a unit of quiet nerds waiting our turn to ride in the coveted “way way back,” where you could make a nest and nap or watch the world and your thoughts pass by backwards.   For literary car number three, we’re going way way back to substance over style, and we’re going back to Steinbeck.           Travels With Charley wasn’t his first foray into the literary road trip. That honor goes to The Grapes of Wrath, which features the humblest family car ever. Whatever rude comforts Steinbeck enjoyed on the back of his pickup would have seemed like the lap of luxury to the family Joad. Piling themselves and the things they could not live withoutâ€"see also: not muchâ€"into their cranky old farm truck, they set out to find their dreams in California.       The novel isn’t shy about its metaphors. With Steinbeck, is a car ever just a car? Of course not. It also gets heavily featured on the dust jackets and paperback covers of several editions, which smacks a bit of importance. I’m not shy about metaphors either: families are a little like sharks, I think. I don’t mean in the sense of their savagery or excessive sets of chompers waiting to sink into your vulnerable parts (or do I?), but in the sense of without forward motionâ€"true dynamicsâ€"they die. The dreams of the Joad family come about as close to death as one can get. They suffer setbacks, they take on stray passengers, they break down. Without the luxury of trading yours in for a newer, faster, safer make or model you have to learn how a family gets fixed while you’re on the road and you pretty much have to do it yourself. The other alternative is to walk aloneâ€"a bleak and impossible option for a farmer fleeing the suffocating terror of the Dust Bowl and a bleak and impossible option for a modern anybody trying to flee the suffocating terror of insignificance. It’s a compelling image to climb up onto. I’m not even especially a car person; I’m licensed to operate one, but that’s about where my relationship with them mostly ends. That writers have enchanted me with their imagined automobiles and all they represent speaks to the power of both the writer and their subject. Whether we read for comfort or for speed, we’ll keep finding cars in our books. And, if you’re like me, you’ll keep finding books in your car.           Sign up to Unusual Suspects to receive news and recommendations for mystery/thriller readers.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Ecological Footprint Product - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2416 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Ecology Essay Type Review Did you like this example? Ecological Footprint analysis has been conducted at a various levels such as nation, region, sector, company and product. There are various methodologies followed to analyze the ecological footprint depending on many factors. This part of the report addresses the ecological footprint methods. 4. Fundamentals Prior to conducting ecological footprint analysis, there are certain fundamentals which need to be covered. These are pre-requisite before the application of the methods of footprint. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Ecological Footprint Product" essay for you Create order 4.1 Data Availability Data is one of the crucial factors for the Ecological Foot-printing. The data needs to be scooped and checked and compared with other available data for the area where the analysis is to be conducted. 4.2 Boundary Definition The boundary of the ecological footprint needs to be defined. The ecological footprint analysis faces boundary issues to include and exclude activities. There are two principles of defining a boundary of the study. 4.2.1 Geographical (administrative) boundaries This principle is based on whether the study should calculate footprints within the geographical or administrative border. For example, if the footprint study needs to be done for an airport in Germany, all the impacts due to the airport will be contributed to Germany by using Geographical boundary. 4.2.2 Responsibility boundaries The responsibility boundary is based on the consumption of an areas population irrespective of where the consumption occurs. For the same example of airport, in this case, only the impacts which are attributed to people in Germany will be included. Therefore, it is to be noted that the answers can be very different depending on the boundary condition we choose for our analysis to be conducted. 4.3 Double Counting Double counting should be avoided as it would unnecessary make the footprints bigger. There are many steps during ecological footprint analysis in which there are dangers of double counting. To avoid double counting, the processes should be clear and well defined. 5. Methods There are basically two methods to calculate the footprints. They are the compound or component-based methods which are explained in following sections. 5.1 Compound method Compound Method is the top-down approach. The compound method is applied primarily at the national or state level and utilizes national production, as well as import and export data to determine consumption and calculate the footprint. The procedure is mainly composed of following steps: 5.1.1 Consumption Analysis conversion to area Consumption analysis is conducted for biotic resources including meat, fruits, grains, dairy products so on. The consumption analysis is done for primary products and its derived secondary products. Primary Products Primary products are products which can be used directly or processed into secondary products like vegetables, unprocessed round wood etc. Consumption for primary product is calculated by production and adding imports and subtracting exports. The consumption quantities are converted into land area by their corresponding world average biotic productivity, or yield. At the national level, world average productivity is used for each land type to create a common base yield for inter-country comparisons. The consumption divided by the yield of that particular resource gives the area required to generate that consumption. The formula is given in slide 27 in annex 1. It should be noted here that further adjustments should be made to avoid double counting where necessary. For the double cropping lands, consumption should be considered only once as it will increase the footprint area. If the animals are grain fed, resource meat should be converted to arable land and not pastur e. Secondary products Secondary products are derived products like milk, paper etc. Secondary Products are converted into primary product equivalents for the purposes of Ecological Footprint calculations. The global conversion figure is used for imports of secondary products use the global conversion factor whereas national conversion factor is used for domestically produced goods. The weighted proportion of amount of products imported and produced domestically with their respective conversion factors are used to calculate the area of export. The formula is given in slide 28 in annex 1. The areas calculated by consumptions are converted to quantities of five specific ecological categories of lands and sea types including cropland, forest, pasture, built land, and sea according to which land types are required for production or assimilation of these items. For example, if the resource is grain, then the area is reflected as arable or cropland. The sum of footprints of all the products consu med within that category is the total Footprint. For example, the Footprint of cropland includes cereals for human consumption, cotton, processed oils, and fodder crops for livestock. Footprints are multiplied by equivalence factors to express the final footprint in global hectares. Each land type is assigned an equivalence factor that reflects its relative capacity to produce biomass. The different land types with varying productiveness are dealt by the use of equivalence factors. Hence the regions with varying quantities and composition of areas can be compared. 5.1.2 Energy Footprint Energy balance is determined by considering both local and direct use of energy and embodied energy in categories of traded goods. Embodied Energy is the energy used during a products entire life cycle in order to manufacture, transport, use and dispose of the product. The data for the embodied energy are well published and available. The UNs COMTRADE database with trade flows of more than 600 categories of productions are used to generate estimates of embodied energy. The embodied energy is given in terms of energy intensity (GJ/tonne). There are mainly two ways of translating the energy consumption to the energy land. Waste Assimilation / Carbon Sequestration The direct energy consumption is adjusted for carbon content according to the primary fuel used. The energy is translated into CO2 emissions using the national fuel mix profile of the producing country for exports, and using the world average fuel mix for imports. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions due to human activities are quantified. CO2 emissions from the consumption of energy are converted into footprint by considering the amount of land required to sequester CO2 emissions. The carbon sequestration method takes into account the assimilative capacity of forests by deducting the emission captured by oceans and assigns the necessary forest area. The area required is represented by: Area (ha) = CO2 Emissions (tons) * (1 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" fraction absorbed by ocean) / Sequestration Rate (tons/ha) Based on the above formula, the sequestration area is calculated by deducting the approximately one-third of anthropogenic emissions absorbed by the oceans from the total anthr opogenic emissions (IPCC, 2001). This method of carbon sequestration rate to convert into energy land is mostly used method. Biomass Substitution Another method for calculation of energy land is biomass substitution. The biomass substitution approach calculates the area needed to replace fossil fuels with their energy equivalent in fuel wood. The area is given by Area (ha) = Energy (GJ) / [Round wood yield (GJ/ha) * Expansion Factor (-)] Where; expansion factor accounts for additional biomass used for fuel from limbs, small trees etc. 5.1.3 Hydro Power and Nuclear Energy In ecological footprint, areas occupied by hydroelectric dams and reservoirs are taken into account as built area. The hydro power Footprint is calculated for each country using the average ratio of power output to inundated reservoir area for a selection of large dams for which both surface area and power output data are available. Currently, Nuclear Energy is considered same as fossil energy as omission would misinterpret the footprint thereby the ecological performance. 5.1.4 Summary The ecological footprint is summarized in six ecological categories. The footprints for individual consumption categories are aggregated to reach the total ecological footprint of the entity or population. The sum of Crop production, grazing, forestry, fisheries, and built-up areas are mutually exclusive and equals the total Ecological Footprint. The total is compared to how much bio capacity exists within a country. The whole structure of the footprint calculation is shown in Fig.1. Structure of Footprint and Biocapacity Calculations. The compound method depends on material flows at the national level and established trade data. National data gathers aggregate resource demand which doesnt require the information of end use. Therefore, compound method is more robust for comparisons between nations. With the same assumption and international data, different countries are compared. The World Wide Fund for natures (WWF) Living Planet Report (LPR) uses the compound method fo r Ecological footprint and presents it as one of two main indices to quantify changes in the state of the Earths ecosystems. The disadvantage of this method is it doesnt give any disaggregated data, so the sector wise footprint information cannot be derived. 5.2 Component Based Approach With the compound method, the consumption are estimated through analyses of material flows and activity components. Individuals or organizations consumption is combined in a bottom-up manner to the top required level. It incorporates basic life cycle data of relevant components for resource consumption and waste production. Emphasis is given to the activities rather than the cumulative resource use. This approach relies on sources that are more accessible to individuals and organizations. The main sources of data for the component method are raw data collection from the field and life cycle studies. For some activities, the Ecological Footprint values for certain activities are pre-calculated using data appropriate to that particular entity. The land use categories used for compound analysis are also used for component-based analysis. 5.2.1 Components The component method involves data collection from range of activities such as transport, energy use, materials and product consumption etc. The list of components impacts which are typically considered with this approach are: Direct Energy Food Material Waste Transport Water Built land It considers the effects of the above components or activities and converts these into equivalent land areas in global hectares (gha). 5.2.2 Conversion Factor/ Footprint of Component Conversion factors take into account all the activities necessary to the production of a particular resource. The application of life cycle analysis to the production of a product is fundamental in component footprint. This allows for a fuller picture of the impacts associated with material production and use as well as distinction between primary and secondary like manufactured products. The life cycle assessment data are required to derive the ecological conversion footprints for components. The conversion factor needs to take into account the transport, processing and agriculture energy. For material and transport elements, it further makes allowance for the embodied energy, the energy land etc need to be included. The data sources are more specific to the particular activity or area and that data collection is therefore also more time-consuming. Extra care has to be taken to avoid double-counting of impacts. Since component method is concentrated at detailed activity , it is more vulnerable to double counting. The conversion factors for certain activities are calculated taking into account related factors like transportation, processing, maintenance etc. Some example of the pre calculated values are given in presentation slide 37 in the annex 1. 5.3.3 Summary Since many people can identify with the activities of component, the component method is simplistic and educative. The activities like production of waste and the consumption of electricity etc are built around peoples daily routine, and people can participate and understand them. This method has the benefit of greater local transparency, which facilitates comparisons between impacts of different activities and experimentation with possible sustainability scenarios. However, the comprehensive component list and reliability of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) and determines the overall accuracy of the final result. Hence, this approach has dangers of producing inaccurate results due to incomplete and inaccurate information. Colorado College conducted ecological footprint using component based approach. The method for calculation and assumption are given in their report. Another example is Regional Stepwiseà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢ developed by Best foot forward organization based on component approach to find the ecological footprint of a region or community. 6. Limitations Ecological footprint doesnt consider the loss of productivity from soil erosions. It excludes effect of pollution, toxic. Resource and waste flows that cannot be measured are excluded from the assessment. Many activities excluded from the ecological footprint is already described in chapter 3. The accuracy of the conversion factors and footprints itself are constrained by data quality and availability. Proxies are used which may reflect true activity but they are not as reliable as primary data. Thus proxies reduce the reliability of the footprints calculated. There are some potential errors types of errors such as data errors, assumption errors, systematic misinterpretations etc in the ecological footprint which is important in checking the validity and reliability of the ecological footprint results. Conclusion The ecological footprint methodology is undergoing significant development and regularly incorporates new data and scientific knowledge as it becomes available. The Global Footprint Network is continually improving the methodology through the National Footprint Accounts. Careful planning is required before footprint project in order to determine the best methodology to adopt. The choice of method is determined primarily by scale and data availability and the purpose of foot printing. Each method has its benefits and uses. Component methods allow detailed footprints but may be unreliable as data quality is questionable. On the other hand Compound foot printing may result in a more robust overall value but the disaggregated subcomponents may be unreliable. The combination of methods can be used for footprint calculation to explore the possibility of applying the best elements of each method. The component method that is combined with compound Ecological Footprints assess ment can overcome the weaknesses of respective methods. Numerous Studies for organizational, municipal and regional are conducted by calibrating component-based estimates on past and present compound national. References Chambers N, Simmons C, Wackernagel M (2000): Sharing Natures Interest: Ecological Footprints as an indicator of sustainability, Earthscan, London McLoone A et al (- ): The Ecological Footprint Analysis of SMEs within Mid-West region of Ireland, University of Limerick, Ireland. Wackernagel M. et al (2007): Current Method for calculating National Ecological Footprint Account, 2007, Science for Environmental and sustainable society, Vol 4. No1, Research Center for Sustainability and Environment Shiga University Wackernagel M et al (2005): National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts 2005: The underlying calculation method, Global Footprint Networks Wright P. E (2002): Ecological Footprint of Colorado College: An Examination of sustainability , Colorado 12/11/2007 Ecological Footprint Modeling : 15/11/2007 Footprint Methodology : https://www.f 30/10/2007 Stepwise Methodology : 12/11/2007 Summary of Book Sharing Natures Interest: 10/11/2007 Technical Report on Methodology : 5/11/2007 24/11/07 20/11/07 18/11/07 WWF, Living Planet Report (2002); 23/11/07 Annex 2: Equivalence Factors and Yield factors

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Supply Chain Management And Customer Relationship Management

This paper will look at the impact supply chain management and customer relationship management is having on industries across the markets. The focus will be on the history of each value chain management technique, how they have evolved into the services they provide today, and what companies are successfully implementing these types of management services. The companies that are discussed in SCM include Cisco and Proctor Gamble. This paper will show that Cisco has invested heavily into their supply chain management as they see it as a primary area of concentration for continued success. PG has been the world leader in SCM but continues to find new ways to improve their use of SCM. The companies discussed in CRM include Activision and the airline industry with specific mentions of American Airlines and Delta Airlines. Activision has implemented CRM to provide better interaction with their customers. The Airline industry is using CRM for everything from account management, to collabo ration with partner carriers. Impact of Supply Chain Management and Customer Relationship Management A significant portion of a company’s time and resources are spent on its supply chain and their customers. As technology has advanced over the last 20 years, so has the way in which organizations manage their supply chains and their customers. These primary areas of value chain management include supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM). These formsShow MoreRelatedSupply Chain And Customer Relationship Management1840 Words   |  8 Pagesfrom traditional management systems to supply chain and customer relationship management. Earlier companies used to follow traditional management systems where the main emphasis was on the Activity-based costing (ABC). It represents analyzing the activities and then assigning resources on to them. 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No wonder companies that collaborate effectively across the supply chain have enjoyed dramatic reductions in inventories and costs, together with improvements in speed, service levels, and customer satisfaction (Luis B., Verda E. Daniel S., 2012). Collaboration is an important characteristics for people in the supply chain industry to create more shared values than those who don’t collaborate. In the supply chain, suppliers are able to provide sufficient raw materials, manufacturersRead More Supply Chain Ma nagement Essay867 Words   |  4 PagesSupply Chain Management According to our class text Supply Chain Management’s goal is to create fast, efficient, and low-cost network of business relationships to get a company’s product from concept to market. In order to understand the goal we must know that the supply chain is the process the raw materials of a product go through in order to be available to the consumer. The relationships that the business creates are needed in order to create the product, each process the product goes

Gym Culture Free Essays

IntroAttention Getter: By a show of hands who likes to go to work out? Background Audience Relevance: Gym culture has been around for a long time but it has recently been growing and more and more people have begun to go and get healthy. Speaker Credibility: I have been going to the gym for a couple years now and I have done my own research on gym culture. Thesis: In my speech, we will be discussing what gym culture means to me and what it could possibly mean to you. We will write a custom essay sample on Gym Culture or any similar topic only for you Order Now Preview of Main Points: First I will be discussing how my object is part of my culture, second the important values it has, and third how I identify with it. II. Body Main Point 1: To begin, I am going to talk about how this object is used in a way for me to relieve stress and anger. Sub-point A: Being a full time student and working part time can be very stressful to me as I’m sure it is the same for a lot of college students, but finding at least an hour to an hour and a half to go to the gym or even working out from home can be such a helpful stress reliever. This is because it helps get me out of their my little stress filled bubble and pretty much let loose. Sub-point B: not only is it a good way to relieve stress but also anger. I know that working in a fast food or retail job can cause a lot of tension and anger especially with the customers, coworkers, and even managers. Of course we are forced to keep it all in because we need this job to put ourselves through school and buy our own personal treats. Well going to the gym is a very good way to take out that anger by pushing yourself hard in that workout. Transition between Main Points: Now that I have talked about how this object is a way to relieve stress and anger next I will be talking about how it represents my values. Main Point 2: going to the gym is not only about relieving stress and anger but also and about being healthy and motivated. Sub-point A: In my opinion going to the gym or being a fit person does not mean that you have to have a six pack or extremely muscular arms or legs. More so it just means that you are feeling good about yourself and being healthy. Since I have started going to the gym I am feeling much healthier and I am not doing crazy diets, but am cutting back on some foods and learning to eat better. Sub-point B: It also helps with being motivated because slowly but surely you begin to see results which gives me confidence and keeps motivating me to keep going and bettering myself.Transition between Main Points: having discussed how I value going to the gym, I will now tell you how I identify with this culture. Main Point 3: Influencing myself and other people to come to the gym or work out in general is one way I identify myself with this culture. Another could be the way I can dress to go to the gym a.k.a the fashion. Sub-point A: going to the gym helps me feel like a good influence to myself and others like my work out partners because I believe I am encouraging them to keep going and feeling healthy and fit because sometimes they do not want to go workout but I convince them to come with me and sometimes it is the other way around, but in the end we help each other to push ourselves in working out and bettering themselves. Sub-point B: When one starts going to the gym we see that there are many types of way people dress and we start looking for which fashion better suits us and makes us feel comfortable. There is no right or wrong way to dress for the gym it’s just how you feel when wearing a certain outfit. I know that i enjoy my leggings and big baggy shirts because I feel extremely comfortable, but someone else could feel different about that outfit. III. Conclusion Signal and Review of Main Points: Having discussed how this object is part of this culture, how it represents my values, and how I identify with it you now know what this culture means to me. Recap Thesis: I have now explained what gym culture is to me. Memorable Closer: Remember being healthy and fit doesn’t mean you have to be super skinny or muscular it is just about feeling better and more confident in your own body. How to cite Gym Culture, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Stem Cell Essay Example

Stem Cell Essay Cells that can differentiate into various cell types are called stem cells and include embryonic stem (ES) cells and adult stem cells. Because ES cells can become a new organism or can differentiate into any tissue type, they are said to be â€Å"totipotent.† Adult stem cells, on the other hand, because they cannot (as far as we know) become any type of tissue, are said to be â€Å"pluripotent.† For example, bone marrow stem cells can become red blood cells, T-lymphocytes, or B-lymphocytes, but not muscle or bone cells. Nerve stem cells can also become different types of nerve tissue. Stem cell research attempts to engineer tissues from the bodys stem cells to replace defective, damaged, or aging tissues. In 1998, scientists were able to grow human ES cells indefinitely. Since then, researchers have conducted stem cell experiments on mammals and have had some success in repairing spinal chord injuries in mice. Because scientists cannot use federal funds to conduct research on embryos, private corporations, most notably the Geron Corporation, have funded ES cell research. Geron, in anticipation of potential ethical concerns, appointed its own ethics advisory board (Lebacqz et al. 1999). The Clinton administration sought to loosen the interpretation of the ban on embryo research to allow the government to sponsor research on the use of ES cells once they were available, but not on the derivation of those cells; it is unclear how the Bush administration will react to this idea. President G. W. Bush had made the decision to allow use only of about 60 existing cell lines, and not the production of embryonic cell lines specifically made for the purpose of use for stem cells. (Kant Patel, Mark Rushefsky, 2005) We will write a custom essay sample on Stem Cell specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Stem Cell specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Stem Cell specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Most of the stem cell procedures proposed to date would use the ES cells from embryos created by couples in fertility clinics. In the United States, thousands of embryos are discarded each year because IVF couples cannot use all of their embryos. A couple may create 300 embryos in an attempt give birth to one child. Another approach to stem cell research proposes that researchers create embryos for scientific and medical purposes. This approach, known as therapeutic cloning, or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), involves transferring the nucleus from a cell in a persons body into an enucleated egg. The ES cells from this new embryo would match the tissue in the persons body, thus avoiding the potential tissue rejection problems that could arise in stem cell therapy. The potential of stem cell research is enormous, because so many diseases result from tissue damage. Stem cell research could lead to advances in treating paralysis, diabetes, heart disease, pancreatitis, Parkinsons di sease, liver disease, arthritis, and many other conditions. The main objection to this promising research has to do with the source of ES cells. ES cells can be obtained from aborted embryos, embryos remaining after infertility treatments (IVF), embryos created solely for research by IVF techniques, and from SCNT techniques (i.e., therapeutic cloning). To obtain ES cells, therefore, one must either create embryos that will be used, manipulated, or destroyed, or one must obtain embryos leftover from infertility treatments. But here is where the abortion debate resurfaces, because these techniques would involve treating embryos as mere things or objects and would not give embryos the respect they deserve, according to some critics. If one views embryos as human beings with dignity and rights, then one should refrain from ES cell research, because this would be equivalent to using human beings in an experiment without their consent, murdering human beings, and so on. Using embryos from abortions is problematic, according to critics, because this practice can encourage abortions. The NBAC (1999) report on this topic recommends that embryos merit respect as a form of life but that they do not merit the same respect as adult human beings. The NBAC made several recommendations, among them, separating the abortion decision from the procedure to use fetal tissues, and that there should be no payment for fetal tissues. Scientific researchers propose to pursue a particular line of research and often have a preferred direction in which they want to go; they (and their lay supporters) hold that the research may be valuable in its results but do not say that it is morally obligatory; if there are objections to the research on ethical or social grounds, the researchers try to modify their work to respond to the criticism; and if the results prove not to be promising, the researchers move in another direction. (David Magnus, 2006) The morally hazardous form of the research imperative responds differently. The proposed research is called morally obligatory, and it is either said or implied that the chosen research direction is the only or the incontestably superior way to go; its proponents dismiss critics of the research as ignorant, fearful, or biased and make only superficial changes to mollify them; and when the research fails to pan out or is slow in coming, they take that fact to show that more research money is needed or that ethical hand-wringing and groundless anxieties have stood in its way. Strikingly, for all the hostility it generated, research on violence in particular and on behavioural genetics more generally has not relied on the moral imperative language even though its supporters believe it can be of great value. At the same time, the researchers have been sensitive to the main line of criticism, that the research results can be misused, and they have been quick to object to media distortions or the excess enthusiasm of some of their colleagues. The flavour changes with fetal cell, embryo, and stem cell research. The scientific claims grow more extravagant, the moral language rises to the highest register, and objections to the research are mainly explained away rather than being taken seriously. â€Å"Therapeutic cloning (or cell replacement by means of nuclear transfer) is a new medical technology that has the potential to transform medicine †¦ this research is not only ethically permissible but imperative.† (Robert P. Lanza et al., 2000) The National Bioethics Advisory Commission held that â€Å"research that involves the destruction of embryos†¦is necessary to develop cures for life-threatening or severely debilitating diseases and when appropriate protections and oversight are in place to prevent abuse†.   (National Bioethics Advisory Commission, 52) The implications of that sentence are that no other line of research can be fruitful, and that there is no abuse in destroying embryos. But the former claim is excessive, and the latter at the very least contestable. That same report did say that, in a broad way, the potential benefits of research are not necessarily sufficient to morally justify it, and that limits on science are sometimes necessary. But it did not set many limits to this kind of â€Å"necessary† research, at least none that will hold up in a serious way. â€Å"Imperative† is inappropriate language to use in seeking public money to carry out embryonic stem cell research; it is even less appropriate to use as a moral trump card to beat down ethical objections. A British physician and medical editor, Richard H. Nicholson, noted how, in Great Britain, the director of the Wellcome Trust claimed that 10 percent of the population would benefit from stem cell research. He added that, â€Å"however outrageous the claims, government ministers and members of Parliament alike believed them†¦ the wider risks to societal beliefs about the value of human life, if one devalues the embryo, were hardly considered.† (Richard H. Nicholson, 2001) The same has been true in the United States, with excessive hype for the research (few informed scientists and enthusiastic ethicists or legislators urged caution in evaluating the claims), and a campaign to discredit opponents—and nothing could do that better than calling them the â₠¬Å"religious right.† As the hostilities that developed in response to the XYY controversy and the development of the field of behavioural genetics demonstrated, a fear of the misuse of scientific knowledge has marked many of the debates. An objection to human cloning is not simply that it could deprive a cloned person of his own genetic identity, but also that it will move even further in the direction of â€Å"boutique babies† and the dehumanization of procreation. The social implications of research are surely worthy of consideration, and relevant in judging its value, two qualifications are in order. One of them is that it is difficult to know whether imagined social implications will in fact turn out to be true; and the other is that the way we deal with the implications—even if they come true—may make a great difference in their eventual social impact. The massive use of prenatal diagnosis in India to eliminate unwanted female children could not easily have been foreseen, for ex ample, even if some use for that purpose could be. Looming over these two qualifications is a still more important question: how are we to measure potential risks and benefits of the research, particularly when the benefits are social and not more narrowly medical? Save for historical precedent, if there is any, nothing is more difficult (but not impossible) than trying to predict the social implications of gaining new knowledge or developing new technologies, whether the discovery of electricity, splitting the atom, the invention of the airplane, or the impact of saving lives that once would have ended much earlier. While human reproductive cloning, for instance, does not offers any prospect of benefit to anyone except perhaps under rare circumstances for a tiny minority of infertile couples. But then neither has anyone specified the benefit that cloning will bring to the lives of children. The discussion of alleged benefits is parent-centered, not child-centered. Those critical of behavioural genetics have, by contrast, the historical experience of the ill-fated eugenics movement to cite, and plenty of evidence about the way people can get stigmatized and marginalized by alleged genetic traits or predispositions. Those worries should not be decisive in stifling any and all behavioural research, but they do offer an empirical base for concern about the harmful potential use of the knowledge, and a strong incentive for the researchers to take great care in describing the meaning and value of their research. Of course most researchers try to handle their findings cautiously and articulate them sensitively to guard against their misuse. But there is no way, finally, for them to control what others do with the knowledge or techniques they develop. That is a good reason to be cautious and realistic—cautious about potential harms yet realistic that not much may be done to avoid some of them even with the best will in the world. But the potent ial for misuse of otherwise valid research, conducted for serious reasons, does not in itself provide adequate grounds to stifle it. The safety of a proposed line of research raises related problems. To this day many recall the worries about safety that marked the early work on in vitro fertilization. The theologian Paul Ramsey was one of the most eloquent writers on the danger that such research posed for any child so procreated. But when baby Louise Brown was born in 1978 and developed in a normal and healthy way, those worries were blown away in an instant, even though the researchers never did reveal how many missteps it took to get to Louise Brown. The failure of recombinant DNA research to produce any flagrant safety problems for the researchers or the general public in the 1970s was, as indicated above, taken as a cautionary tale by many scientists about the damage done by taking private worries to the public. It was hard not to recall those incidents when NBAC called for a five-year moratorium on human cloning research solely on the grounds of a threat to the health of children so cloned. Possible harms are easy to project but their chances of materializing are not. Moreover—to recall another feature of the early IVF research—in the early 1970s when the researchers clearly realized that there was a great deal of opposition to their work they went underground; or, more precisely, they continued the research but released no preliminary findings or did anything else to call attention to their work. If they were betting that success would silence the critics, it was a bet that paid off handsomely. Will anyone be astounded to hear, a few years from now, that researchers working in the private sector, free of bans, have managed to clone a healthy child—and that the failures along the way (or likely to occur later) will not be revealed? Since there is no known social benefit in reproductive cloning, even if successful, there is no warrant for running any of those risks. Humanity in the past has produced many evils and still does into the present. The absence of human reproductive cloning does not appear to be the cause of any of them. Hence, the social risk of research that might change basic human institutions for the worse in order to gain small, very small, social benefits—in this case procreation—is worthy of the most careful attention. It is also the most difficult kind of assessment to carry out, if only because—as history has amply shown—nothing is much harder than judging the long-term consequences of new knowledge. Yet it is important to attempt such assessments, and a fine research project would be to see if some sophisticated methods. (Glenn Mcgee, Arthur L. Caplan, 2001)